AbstractThis state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.
Amunts, K., Schleicher, A., & Zilles, K. (2004). Outstanding language competence and cytoarchitecture in Broca’s speech region. Brain and Language, 89(2), 346-353. doi:10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00360-2
Baqués J., Castellà, J., & Bowers, J. S. (2014, July). The role of the phonological loop in the acquisition of new words in adults. Poster presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England.
Breitenstein, C., Jansen, A., Deppe, M., Foerster, A-F., Sommer, J., Wolbers, T., & Knecht, S. (2005). Hippocampus activity differentiates good from poor learners of a novel lexicon.Neuroimage, 25(3), 958-968. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.019
Carroll, J. B. (1959). Use of the Modern Language Aptitude Test in secondary schools. Yearbook of the National Council on Measurements Used in Education, 16, 155-159.
Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Center for Functional MRI. (n.d.). What is fMRI? Retrieved from the website of the Center for Functional MRI, University of San Diego: http://fmri.ucsd.edu/Research/whatisfmri.html
Chee, M. W. L., Soon, C. S., Lee, H. L., & Pallier, C. (2004). Left insula activation: A marker for language attainment in bilinguals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(42), 15265-15270.
Christiner, M., & Reiterer, S. M. (2013). Song and speech: Examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability. Frontiers in Psychology (Cognitive Science), 4(874), 1-11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00874
Coggins, P. E., Kennedy, T. J., & Armstrong, T. A. (2004). Bilingual corpus collosum variability. Brain and Language, 89(1), 69-74. doi:10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00299-2
Conway, A. (2014, July). Process Overlap Theory: A new interpretation of working memory capacity. Paper presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England.
Cowan, N. (2014). Working memory underpins cognitive development, learning, and education. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 197-223. doi:10.1007/s10648-013-9246-y
De Bot, K. (2006). The plastic bilingual brain: Synaptic pruning or growth? Commentary on Green et al. In M. Gullberg & P. Indefrey (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition (pp. 127-132). Oxford: Blackwell.
Dehaene, S., Dupoux, E., Mehler, J., Cohen, L., Paulesu, E., Perani, D., … & Le Bihan, D. (1997). Anatomical variability in the cortical representation of first and second language. NeuroReport, 8, 3809-3815.
DeKeyser, R. M., & Koeth, J. (2011). Cognitive aptitudes for second language learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 395-407). New York: Routledge.
De Zubicaray, G. I., Rose, S. E., & McMahon, K. L. (2011). The structure and connectivity of semantic memory in the healthy older adult brain. Neuroimage, 54, 1488-1494. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.08.058
Díaz, B., Baus, C., Escera, C., Costa, A., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2008). Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(42), 16083-16088.
Díaz, B., Mitterer, H., Broersma, M., & Sebastian-Galles, N. (2012) Individual differences in late bilinguals' L2 phonological processes: From acoustic-phonetic analysis to lexical access. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 680-689. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.05.005
Doughty, C. J. (2013). Optimizing post-critical-period language learning. In G. Granena & M. H. Long (Eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 153-175). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. (2010). The relationship between language aptitude and language learning motivation: Individual differences from a dynamic systems perspective. In E. Macaro (Ed.), Continuum companion to second language acquisition (pp. 247-267). London: Continuum.
Ekman, M., Fiebach, Ch. J., Tittgemeyer, M., & Derrfuss, J. (2014, July). White matter structural network connectivity of prefrontal cortex predicts individual differences in working memory capacity. Poster presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England.
Fein, D., & Obler, L. K. (1988). Neuropsychological study of talent: A developing field. In L. K. Obler & D. Fein (Eds.), The exceptional brain (pp. 3-15). New York: Guilford.
Flöel, A., de Vries, M. H., Scholz, J., Breitenstein, C., & Johansen-Berg, H. (2009). White matter integrity in the vicinity of Broca’s area predicts grammar learning success. Neuroimage, 47, 1974-1981. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.046
Golestani, N. (2012). Brain structural correlates of individual differences at low to high-levels of the language processing hierarchy: A review of new approaches Neurology of foreign language aptitude to imaging research. International Journal of Bilingualism. doi:10.1177/1367006912456585
Golestani, N., Molko, N., Dehaene, S., LeBihan, D., & Pallier, C. (2007). Brain structure predicts the learning of foreign speech sounds. Cerebral Cortex, 17(3), 575-582. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk001
Golestani, N., Paus, T., & Zatorre, R. J. (2002). Anatomical correlates of learning novel speech sounds. Neuron, 35, 997-1010. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08966273
Golestani, N., Price, C. J., & Scott, S. K. (2011). Born with an ear for dialects? Structural plasticity in the expert phonetician brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(11), 4213-4220. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3891-10.2011
Golestani, N., & Zatorre R. J. (2004). Learning new sounds of speech: Relocation of neural substrates. Neuroimage, 21, 494-506. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.09.071
Goswami, U. (2004). Neuroscience and education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 1-14. doi:10.1348/000709904322848798
Green, D. W., Crinion, J., & Price, C. P. (2006). Convergence, degeneracy, and control. In M. Gullberg & P. Indefrey (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition (pp. 99-125). Oxford: Blackwell.
Grigorenko, E. L., Sternberg, R. J., & Ehrman, M. E. (2000). A theory based approach to the measurement of foreign language learning ability: The CANAL-F theory and test. Modern Language Journal, 84, 390-405. doi:10.1111/0026-7902.00076
Grogan, A., Green, D. W., Ali, N., Crinion, J. T., & Price, C. J. (2009). Structural correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency ability in first and second languages. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2690-2698. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp023
Haier, R. J., Jung, R. E., Yeo, R. A., Head, K., & Alkire, M. T. (2004). Structural brain variation and general intelligence. Neuroimage, 23, 425-433. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.04.025
Haier, R. J., Siegel, B., MacLachlan, A., Soderling, E., Lottenberg, S., Buchsbaum, M. S. (1992). Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: A positron emission tomographic study, Brain Research, 570, 134-143. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90573-R
Hu, X., Ackermann, H., Martin, J. A., Erb, M., Winkler, S., & Reiterer, S. M. (2013). Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) Learners: Behavioural predictors and neural substrates. Brain and Language, 127(3), 366-376. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2012.11.006
Hu, X., & Reiterer, S. (2009). Personality and pronunciation talent in second language acquisition. In G. Dogil & S. Reiterer (Eds.), Language talent and brain activity. Trends in applied linguistics 1 (pp. 97-130). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Indefrey, P. (2006). A meta-analysis of hemodynamic studies on first and second language processing: Which suggested differences can we trust and what do they mean? In M. Gullberg & P. Indefrey (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition (pp. 279-304). Oxford: Blackwell.
Indefrey, P., & Gullberg, M. (2006). Introduction. In M. Gullberg & P. Indefrey (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition (pp. 1-8). Oxford: Blackwell.
Jensen, A. R. (1997). The puzzle of nongenetic variance. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), Intelligence, heredity, and environment (pp. 42-88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jensen, A. R. (2002). Psychometric g: Definition and substantiation. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), The general factor of intelligence: How general is it? (pp. 39-53). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Jordan, C. (2014, July). Music and working memory. Poster presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England.
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44(2), 137-166. doi:10.1017/S0261444810000509
Kim, K. H., Relkin, N. R., Lee, K. M., & Hirsch, J. (1997). Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature, 388(6638), 171-174.
Lee, H., Devlin, J. T., Shakeshaft, C., Stewart, L. H., Brennan, A., Glensman, J., … & Price, C. J. (2007). Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1184-1189. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4442-06.2007
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P. Koeth, J. T., & Bunting M. F. (2013). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2
Long, M. H. (2013). Maturational constraints on child and adult SLA. In G. Granena & M. H. Long (Eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 3-41). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Lopez-Barroso, D., de Diego-Balaguer, R., Cunillera, T., Camara, E., Münte, T. F., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A. (2011). Language learning under working memory constraints correlates with microstructural differences in the ventral language pathway. Cerebral Cortex, 21(12), 2742-2750. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr064
Magnetoencephalography. (n.d.). In Psychology dictionary. Retrieved from http://psychologydictionary.org/magnetoencephalography-imegl/
Majerus, S., Cowan, N., Péters, F., Van Calster, L., Phillips, Ch., & Schrouff, J. (2014, July). Working memory load effects are predicted by neural patterns associated with attentional load: A machine learning approach. Poster presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England. Neurology of foreign language aptitude
Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O'Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiack, R. S., & Price, C. J. (2004). Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431, 757. doi:10.1038/431757a
Nardo, D., & Reiterer, S. (2009). Musicality and phonetic language aptitude. In G. Dogil & S. Reiterer (Eds.), Language talent and brain activity. Trends in applied linguistics 1 (pp. 213-256). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Nauchi, A., & Sakai, K. L. (2009). Greater leftward lateralization of the inferior frontal gyrus in second language learners with higher syntactic abilities. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 3625-3635. doi:10.1002/hbm.20790
Novoa, L., Fein, D., & Obler, L. K. (1988). Talent in foreign languages: A case study. In L. K. Obler, & D. Fein (Eds.), The exceptional brain: Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities (pp. 294-302). New York: Guilford.
Obler, L. K. (1989). Exceptional second language learners. In S. Gass, C. Madden, D. Preston, & L. Selinker (Eds.), Variation in second language acquisition: Psycholinguistic issues (pp. 141-159). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Perani, D. (2005). The neural basis of language talent in bilinguals. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 211-213. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.001
Perani, D., Abutalebi, J., Paulesu, E., Brambati, S., Scifo, P., Cappa, S. F., & Fazio, F. (2003). The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: An fMRI study during verbal fluency. Human Brain Mapping, 19, 170-182. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0193
Pereda, E., Reiterer, S. M., & Bhattacharya, J. (2011). Topography of functional connectivity in human multichannel EEG during second language processing. In J. A. Lozano, J. A. Gómez, & J. A. Moreno (Eds.), Advances in artificial intelligence (pp. 253-262). Heidelberg: Springer.
Plomin, R. (1997). Identifying genes for cognitive abilities and disabilities. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), Intelligence, heredity, and environment (pp. 89-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Postle, B. (2014, July). Revisiting assumptions about the physiological mechanisms underlying the short-term retention of information. Paper presented at the International Conference of Working Memory, Cambridge, England.
Reiterer, S. M. (2009). Brain and language talent: A synopsis. In G. Dogil & S.
Reiterer (Eds.), Language talent and brain activity. Trends in applied linguistics 1 (pp. 155-191). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Reiterer, S. M., Berger, M. L., Hemmelmann, C., & Rappelsberger, P. (2005). Decreased EEG coherence between prefrontal electrodes: A correlate of high language proficiency? Experimental Brain Research, 163, 109-113. doi:10.1007/s00221-005-2215-z
Reiterer, S. M., Hu, X., Erb, M., Rota, G., Nardo, D., Grodd, W., ... & Ackerman, A. (2011a). Individual differences in audio-vocal speech imitation aptitude in late bilinguals: Functional neuro-imaging and brain morphology. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(271), 1-12. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00271
Reiterer, S. M, Hu, X., Sumathi, T. A., & Singh, N. C. (2013) Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability. Frontiers in Psychology (Cognitive Science), 4(782), 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00782
Reiterer, S. M., Pereda, E., & Bhattacharya, J. (2009). Measuring second language proficiency with EEG synchronization: How functional cortical networks and hemispheric involvement differ as a function of proficiency level in second language speakers. Journal of Second Language Research, 25(1), 77-106. doi:10.1177/0267658308098997
Reiterer, S. M., Pereda, E., & Bhattacharya, J. (2011b). On a possible relationship between linguistic expertise and EEG gamma band phase synchrony. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(334), 1-11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00334
Richardson, F. M., Ramsden, S., Ellis, C., Burnett, S., Megnin, O., Catmur, C., . . . & Price, C. J. (2011). Auditory STM capacity correlates with gray matter density in the left posterior STS in cognitively normal and dyslexic adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3746-3756. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00060
Richardson, F. M., Thomas, M. S. C., Filippi, R., Harth, H., & Price, C. J. (2010). Contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure across lifespan. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 943-954. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21238
Robinson, P. (2002). Learning conditions, aptitude complexes and SLA: A framework for research and pedagogy. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 113-133). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 631-679). Oxford: Blackwell.
Rota, G., & Reiterer, S. M. (2009). Cognitive aspects of pronunciation talent. In G. Dogil & S. Reiterer (Eds.), Language talent and brain activity. Trends in applied linguistics 1 (pp. 67-112). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Scherer, K. R. (1984). On the nature and function of emotion: A component process approach. In K. R. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 293-318). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schneider, P., Scherg, M., Dosch, H., Specht, H., Gutschalk, A., & Rupp, A. (2002). Morphology of Heschl’s gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory cortex of musicians. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 688-694. doi:10.1038/nn871 Neurology of foreign language aptitude
Schneiderman, E. I., & Desmarais, C. (1988a). The talented language learner: Some preliminary findings. Second Language Research, 4(2), 91-109. doi:10.1177/026765838800400201
Schneiderman, E. I., & Desmarais, C. (1988b). A neuropsychological substrate for talent in second-language acquisition. In L. K. Obler & D. Fein (Eds.), The exceptional brain. Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities (pp.103-126). New York: Guilford.
Schoenemann, P. T., Sheehan, M. J., & Glotzer, L. D. (2005). Prefrontal white matter volume is disproportionately larger in humans than in other primates. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 242-252. doi:10.1038/nn1394
Schumann, J. H. (2004a). Introduction. In J. H. Schumann (Ed.), The neurobiology of learning. Perspectives from second language acquisition (pp. 1-21). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schumann, J. H. (2004b). The neurobiology of aptitude. In J. H. Schumann (Ed.), The neurobiology of learning: Perspectives from second language acquisition (pp. 7-23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Díaz, B. (2012), First and second language speech perception: Graded learning. In L. Roberts & A. Meyer (Eds.), Individual differences in second language learning [Monograph]. Language Learning, 62(Supplement 2), 131-147. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00709.x
Sebastián-Gallés, N., Soriano-Mas, C., Baus, C., Díaz, B., Ressel, V., Pallier, C., … & Pujol, J. (2012). Neuroanatomical markers of individual differences in native and non-native vowel perception. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 25, 150-162. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2011.11.001
Skehan, P. (2002). Theorizing and updating aptitude. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 69-95). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Smith, N., Tsimpli, I., Morgan, G., & Woll, B. (2011). The signs of a savant. Language against the odds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sparks, R. L., Javorsky, J., Patton, J., & Ganschow, L. (1998). Factors in the prediction of achievement and proficiency in a foreign language. Applied Language Learning, 9(1-2), 72-107.
Stein, M., Federspiel, A., Koenig, T., Wirth, M., Strik, W., Wiest, R., … & Dierks, T. (2012). Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency. Cortex, 48, 458-465. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2010.10.007
Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight.
Stowe, L. A. (2006). When does the neurological basis of first and second language processing differ? Commentary on Indefrey. In M. Gullberg & P. Indefrey (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition (pp. 305-311). Oxford: Blackwell.
Sutherland, M. E., Zatorre, R. J., Watkins, K. E., Herve, P-Y., Leonard, G., Pike, B.G., ... & Paus, T. (2012). Anatomical correlates of dynamic auditory processing: Relationship to literacy during early adolescence. NeuroImage, 60, 1287-1295. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.051
Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Looking at second language acquisition from a functional- and structural MRI background. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 2293-2298.
Van den Noort, M., Nordby, H., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Understanding second language acquisition: Can structural MRI bring the breakthrough? Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive Systems. New Delhi. Retrieved from: www.niitcrcs.com/iccs/papers/2005_24.pdf
Warrier, C., Wong, P., Penhune, V., Zatorre, R., Parrish, T., Abrams, D., & Kraus, N. (2009). Relating structure to function: Heschl's Gyrus and acoustic processing. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(1), 61-69. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3489-08.2009
Wen, E., & Skehan, P. (2011). A new perspective on foreign language aptitude: Building and supporting a case for “working memory as language aptitude”. Ilha Do Desterro: A Journal of English Language, Literatures and Cultural Studies, 60, 9-34. doi:10.5007/2175- 8026.2011n60p015
Williams, J. N. (2012). Working memory and SLA. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 427-441). Oxford: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
Wong, F. C. K., Chandrasekaran, B,. Garibaldi, K., & Wong, P. C. M. (2011). White matter anisotropy in the ventral language pathway predicts sound-toword learning success. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 8780-8785. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0999-11.2011
Wong, P. C. M., Morgan-Short, K., Ettlinger, M., & Zheng, J. (2012). Linking neurogenetics and individual differences in language learning: The dopamine hypothesis. Cortex, 48, 1091-1102. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.03.017
Wong, P. C. M., Perrachione, T. K., & Parrish, T. B. (2007). Neural characteristics of successful and less successful speech and word learning in adults. Human Brain Mapping, 28, 995-1006. doi:10.1002/hbm.20330
Wong, P. C. M., Warrier, C. M., Penhune, V. B., Roy, A. K., Sadehh, A., Parrish, T. B., & Zatorre, R. J. (2008). Volume of left Heschl’s gyrus and linguistic pitch learning. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 828-836. doi:10.1093%2Fcercor%2Fbhm115
Wood Bowden, H., Steinhauer, K., Sanz, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2013). Native-like brain processing of syntax can be attained by university foreign language learners. Neuropsychologia,51, 2492-2511. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.09.004.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.