Promoting international posture through history as content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the Japanese context


content and language integrated learning
second language willingness
to communicate
international posture
Japanese EFL

How to Cite

Lockley, T. (2015). Promoting international posture through history as content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the Japanese context. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 87–108.


This article uses the conceptual framework of second language willingness to communicate (L2 WTC), and in particular the contributory construct of international posture (IP; Yashima, 2002), to report on a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) course taught in the Japanese university context. The research follows up an exploratory, small-scale study with a focused qualitative investigation. Due to space restrictions the current paper reports only on the key qualitative findings and attempts to build a picture of how the theme of the course, Japanese international history, affected learners’ IP, a construct that has been shown to be key to Japanese learners of English’s L2 WTC (Yashima, 2002). It is shown that after completing the course, learners felt more connected to the wider world, and as a result IP developed in varied and meaningful ways, seemingly increasing L2 WTC and stimulating critical thinking facilities both within and without the classroom.


Aubrey, S. (2009). Creating a global cultural consciousness in a Japanese EFL classroom. CCSE English Language Teaching, 2(2), 119-131.

Banegas, D. L. (2013). The integration of content and language as a driving force in the EFL lesson. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International perspectives on motivation (pp. 82-97). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Breidbach, S. & Viebrock, B. (2012). CLIL in Germany – Results from recent research in a contested field of education. International CLIL Research Journal, 1(4), 5-16.

Brooks-Lewis, K. (2010). Learning about history in the foreign language classroom. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 137-150.

Costa, F., & Coleman, J. (2010). Integrating content and language in higher education in Italy: Ongoing research. The International CLIL Research Journal, 1(3), 19-29.

Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). Content and language integrated learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9-42). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2005). Language learners’ motivational profiles and their motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 55(4), 613-659.

Edwards, P. (2011). They could but they don’t: Willingness to communicate and in group dynamics among Korean learners of English. DHU TESOL 2011 Journal, 5-33.

Gardner, R. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Godfrey, C. (2013). Readdressing EFL approaches: CLIL curriculum in a Japanese medical university context. The Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 365-371.

Goto Butler, Y. (2011). The implementation of communicative and task-based language teaching in the Asia-Pacific region. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 2011, 31, 36 57.

Ikeda, M. (2013). Does CLIL work for Japanese secondary school students? Potential for the “weak” version of CLIL. The International CLIL Research Journal, 2(1), 31-43.

Juan-Garau, M., & Salazar-Noguera, J. (2014). Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments. Heidelberg: Springer.

Lamie, J. (1998). Teacher education and training in Japan. Journal of In-service Education, 24(3), 515-534.

Lockley, T., Hirschel, R. & Slobodniuk, A. (2010). Assessing the action plan: Reform in Japanese high school EFL. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 9(2), 152-169.

Lockley, T. (2013). International history as CLIL: Reflection, critical thinking and making meaning of the world. The Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 330-338.

Lockley, T. (2014). Some learning outcomes and contextual factors of history as content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in a Japanese context. Studies in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 25, 165-188.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2002). Gender and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning, 52, 537-564.

MacIntyre, P., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.

Martin, J., & Wodak, R. (2003). Re/Reading the past: Critical and functional perspectives on time and value. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McCroskey, J., & Baer, J. (1985, November). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO, USA.

Mehisto, D., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M. J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and language integrated learning in bilingual and multilingual education. Oxford: Macmillan.

Menezes, E., & Juan-Garau, M. (2014). English learners’ willingness to communicate and achievement in CLIL and formal instruction contexts. In M. Juan- Garau & J. Salazar-Noguera (Eds.), Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments (pp. 221-236). Heidelberg: Springer.

Mercer, S. (2011). Towards an understanding of language learner self-concept. Dordrecht: Springer.

Moore, P. (2011). Collaborative interaction in turn-taking: A comparative study of European bilingual (CLIL) and mainstream (MS) foreign language learners in early secondary education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(5), 531-549.

Muto, K., Shinohara, T., Adachi, M., & Kikuta, M. (2013). English immersion camp and international posture. In N. Sonoda & A. Krauze (Eds.), JALT 2012 Conference Proceedings (pp. 536-543). Tokyo: JALT.

Navés, T., & Victoria, M. (2010). CLIL in Catalonia: An overview of research studies. In D. Lasagabaster & Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, results and teacher training (pp. 30-54). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Nikula, T. (2012). On the role of peer discussions in the learning of subject-specific language use in CLIL. In E. Soler & M. Safont-Jordà (Eds.), Discourse and language learning across L2 instructional settings (pp. 133-153). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Norton, B., & McKinney, B. (2011). An identity approach to second language acquisition. In D. Atkinson (Ed.), Alternative approaches to second language acquisition (pp. 73-94). London: Routledge.

Peng, J. E. (2014). Willingness to Communicate in the Chinese EFL university classroom: An ecological perspective. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Peng J. E., & Woodrow L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom. Language Learning, 60, 834-876.

Piggin, G. (2010). A case study of how international posture affects Japanese EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. The Journal of Bunkyo University College of International Studies, 21(1), 1-14.

Rumlich, D. (2013). Students’ general English proficiency prior to CLIL: Empirical evidence for substantial differences between prospective CLIL and non- CLIL students in Germany. In S. Breidbach & B. Viebrock (Eds.), Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in Europe: Research perspectives on policy and practice (pp. 181-201). Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Ryan, S. (2009). Self and identity in L2 motivation in Japan: The ideal L2 self and Japanese learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 120-143). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Ryan, S., & Mercer, S. (2011). Natural talent, natural acquisition and abroad: Learner attributions of agency in language learning. In G. Murray, X. Gao & T. Lamb (Eds.), Identity, motivation and autonomy in language learning (pp. 160-176). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Sato, K., & Kleinsasser, R. (1999). Communicative language teaching (CLT): Practical understandings. Modern Language Journal, 83, 494-517.

Seargeant, P. (2009). The idea of English in Japan. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Sudhoff, J. (2010). CLIL and intercultural communicative competence: Foundations and approaches towards a fusion. The International CLIL Research Journal, 1(3), 30-37.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: Guilford.

Ushioda, E. (2009). A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 215-228). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2009). Motivation, language identities and the L2 self: A theoretical overview. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 Self (pp. 1-8). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Várkuti, A. (2011). Linguistic benefits of the CLIL approach: Measuring linguistic competences. The International CLIL Research Journal, 1(3), 67-79.

Wedell, M., & Malderez, A. (2013). Understanding language classroom contexts: The starting point for change. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Wen, W., & Clément, R. (2003). A Chinese conceptualisation of willingness to communicate in ESL. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16, 18-38.

Yamano, Y. (2013). CLIL in a Japanese primary school: Exploring the potential of CLIL in a Japanese EFL context. The International CLIL Research Journal, 2(1), 19-30.

Yashima, T (2000). Orientations and motivation in foreign language learning: A study of Japanese college students. JACET Bulletin, 31, 121-133.

Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54-66.

Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL context. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 144-163). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Yashima, T. (2013). Individuality, imagination and community in a globalising world: An Asian EFL perspective. In P. Benson & L. Cooker (Eds.), The applied linguistic individual: Sociocultural approaches to identity, agency and autonomy (pp. 46-58). Sheffield: Equinox.

Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 4, 119-152.

Yu, H., Li, H., & Gou, X. (2011). The personality-based variables and their correlations underlying willingness to communicate. Asian Social Sciences, 7(3), 253-257.

Zeng, Y. & Tan, H. (2014, May). A review of WTC research in L2 and its pedagogical implications. Paper presented at the International Conference on Education, Language, Art and Intercultural Communication (ICELAIC 2014), Zhengzhou, China.

Zhou, N. (2014). Communication research in the EFL context: Challenges and directions. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 11-20.

1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the  legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.

1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.

2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:

2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including  printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;

2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;

2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,  made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;

2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);

2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;

2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of  the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;

2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;

2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.

3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.

4. The  Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.

5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:

5.1.  allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;

5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;

5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).

6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).

7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis

7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.

7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. 



Download data is not yet available.