AbstractThe present study investigates Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) in the classroom. Participants were 1746 current FL learners from around the world. We used a measure of FLE, based on Likert scale ratings of 21 items (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014), and a measure of FLCA based on 8 items extracted from the FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986). Statistical analyses revealed that levels of FLE were significantly higher than those of FLCA. FLE and FLCA were linked to a number of independent variables: participants’ perception of their relative level of proficiency within the FL classroom, number of languages known, education level, number of FLs under study, age group and general level of the FL (ranging from lower-intermediate to advanced). Female participants reported both more FLE and more FLCA. Cultural background of participants also had a significant effect on their scores. Participants’ views on episodes of enjoyment in the FL class revealed the importance of teachers’ professional and emotional skills and of a supportive peer group. Many participants mentioned the moment at which they realised that their long effort in mastering an aspect of the FL paid off.
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40.
Arnold, J. (2011). Attention to affect in language learning. Anglistik. International Journal of English Studies, 22 (1), 11-22.
Arnold, J. & Brown, H. (1999). A map of the terrain. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in language learning (pp. 1-24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bailey, K. M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. H. W. Seliger & M. H. Long (Eds.), Classroom-oriented research in second language (pp. 67-102). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Chaplin, T. M., & Aldao, A. (2013). Gender differences in emotion expression in children: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 735-765.
Bown, J., & White, C. J. (2010). Affect in a self-regulatory framework for language learning. System, 38(3), 432-443.
Cheng, Y. (2002) Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35, 647-656.
Cheng, Y., Horwitz, E., & Schallert, D. (1999) Language anxiety: Differentiating writing and speaking components. Language Learning, 49, 417-446.
Clément, R. (1980). Ethnicity, contact, and communicative competence in a second in H. Giles, W. P. Robinson, & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 147-154). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Clément, R. (1986). Second language proficiency and acculturation: An investigation of the effects of language status and individual characteristics. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 5, 271-290.
Cohen, Y., & Norst, M. J. (1989). Fear, dependence and loss of self-esteem: Affective barriers in second language learning among adults. RELC Journal, 20, 61-77.
Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: John Wiley.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety: The experience of flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Collins.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2002). Psychological and sociodemographic correlates of communicative anxiety in L2 and L3 production. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 23-39.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2005). Investigating the psychological and the emotional dimensions in instructed language learning: Obstacles and possibilities. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 367-380.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2007). The effect of multilingualism, sociobiographical, and situational factors on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety of mature language learners. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 11, 391-409.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2009). Perception, attitude and motivation. In V. Cook & Li Wei (Eds.), Language teaching and learning (pp. 163-192). London: Continuum.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2010). Multilingualism and affordances: Variation in self-perceived communicative competence and communicative anxiety in French L1, L2, L3 and L4. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 48, 105-129.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2011). Reflections on the emotional and psychological aspects of foreign language learning and use. Anglistik. International Journal of English Studies, 22(1), 23-42.
Dewaele. J.-M. (2013a). The link between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Psychoticism. Extraversion and Neuroticism among adult bi- and multilinguals. The Modern Language Journal, 97(3), 670-684.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2013b). Emotions in multiple languages (2nd ed.) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dewaele, J.-M., Finney, R., Kubota, T., & Almutlaq, S. (2014). Are perfectionists more anxious foreign language learners and users? Unpublished manuscript.
Dewaele. J.-M., & MacIntyre, P.D. (2014). Foreign Language Enjoyment and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The right and left feet of FL learning? Unpublished manuscript.
Dewaele, J.-M., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2008). The effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58, 911-960.
Dewaele, J.-M., & Tsui Shan Ip (2013). The link between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity and selfrated English proficiency among Chinese learners. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 3(1), 47-66.
Dillaway, C. K. (1833). Roman antiquities, and ancient mythology for classical schools (2nd ed.). Boston: Lincoln, Edmands & Co.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dörnyei, Z., & Murphey, T. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Egbert, J. (2004). A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 87, 499-515.
Elkhafaifi, H. (2005) Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 206-220.
Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 363-385.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden and build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91(4), 330-335.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. Selega (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 85-103). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Updated thinking on positivity ratios. American Psychologist, 68, 814-822.
Gardner, R. C. (1985) Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2010) Motivation and second language acquisition: The Socioeducational Model. New York: Peter Lang.
Gregersen, T. (2003) To err is human: A reminder to teachers of languageanxious students. Foreign Language Annals, 36, 25-32.
Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E. (2002) Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. Modern Language Journal, 86, 562-570.
Gregersen, T., MacIntyre, P. D., & Meza, M. (2014). The motion of emotion. Modern Language Journal, 98, 574-588.
Gregersen, T., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). Capitalizing on individual differences: From premise to practice. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Hewitt, E., & Stephenson, J. (2012). Foreign language anxiety and oral exam performance: A replication of Phillips’s MLJ study. Modern Language Journal, 96, 170-189.
Horwitz, E. K. (1990). Attending to the affective domain in the foreign language classroom. In S. S. Magnam (Ed.), Shifting the instructional focus to the learner (pp. 15-33). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126.
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43, 154-167.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132.
Imai, Y. (2010). Emotions in SLA: New insights from collaborative learning for an EFL classroom. Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 278-292.
Kleinmann, H. H. (1977). Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition. Language Learning, 27, 93-107.
Lake, J. (2013). Positive L2 self: Linking positive psychology with L2 motivation. In M. T. Apple, D. Da Silva, & T. Fellner (Eds.), Language learning motivation in Japan (Second Language Acquisition). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Lu, Z., & Liu, M. (2011). Foreign Language Anxiety and strategy use: A study with Chinese undergraduate EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2, 1298-1305.
MacIntyre, P. D. (1992). Anxiety and language learning from a stages of processing perspective (Appendix C, pp. 181-188; Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language teaching: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (pp. 24-45). Boston: Mc Graw-Hill.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. Modern Language Journal, 91, 564-576.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2010). Perspectives on motivation for second language learning on the 50th anniversary of Gardner & Lambert (1959). Language Teaching, 43, 374-377.
MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support and language learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 369-388.
MacIntyre, P. D., Burns, C., & Jessome, A. (2011). Ambivalence about communicating in a second language: A qualitative study of French immersion students’ willingness to communicate. Modern Language Journal, 95, 81-96.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Towards a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39, 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991a). Investigating language class anxiety using the focused essay technique. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 296-304.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991b). Language anxiety: Its relationship to other anxieties and to processing in native and second language. Language Learning, 41, 513-534.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991c). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41, 85-117.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994a). The effects of induced anxiety on cognitive processing in computerised vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 1-17.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994b). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44, 283-305.
MacIntyre, P., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive-broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2(2), 193-213.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Legatto, J. J. (2011). A dynamic system approach to willingness to communicate: Developing an idiodynamic method to capture rapidly changing affect. Applied Linguistics, 32, 149-171.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Serroul, A. (2015). Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach-avoidance motivation during l2 task performance. In Z. Dörnyei, P. D. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in Language Learning (pp. 109-138). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Nelson, T., & Murphey, T. (2011). Agencing and belonging in the collaborative village: Case studies from two Asian contexts. Anglistik. International Journal of English Studies, 22(1), 81-100.
Pae, T-I. (2013). Skill-based L2 Anxieties Revisited: Their Intra-relations and the Inter-relations with General Foreign Language Anxiety. Applied Linguistics, 34, 232-252.
Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students' oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 76, 14-26.
Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with highly anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 101-108). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Reeve, J. (2005). Understanding motivation and emotion. New York: Wiley.
Rivers, W. (1981) Teaching foreign language skills. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rosenkrantz, W. A. (2008). Introduction to probability and statistics for science, engineering, and finance. Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Ryan, R. M., Connell, J. P., & Plant, R. W. (1990). Emotions in non-directed text learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 2(1), 1-17.
Saito, Y., Garza, T., & Horwitz, E. (1999) Foreign language reading anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 202-218.
Scarcella, R. C., and Oxford, R. L. (1992) The tapestry of language learning: The individual in the communicative classroom. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28, 129-142.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Afterword: Breaking the 65 Percent Barrier. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 230-236). New York: Oxford University Press.
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5
Tardy, C. M., & Snyder, B. (2004). ‘That’s why I do it:’ ‘Flow’ and EFL teachers’ practices. ELT Journal, 58(2), 118-128.
Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2012). Anxiety and EFL: Does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15, 1-20.
Wilson, R., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2010). The use of web questionnaires in second language acquisition and bilingualism research. Second Language Research, 26(1), 103-123.
Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does the anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75, 426-39.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.