Polish Nonword Span (PNWSPAN): A new tool for measuring phonological loop capacity

Main Article Content

Adriana Biedroń

Abstrakt

The phonological loop, which is a component of working memory, is considered to be one of the most significant factors affecting L1 and L2 learning. In order to measure this construct properly, a reliable instrument in the native language of the participants is needed. The purpose of this paper is to present the Polish Nonword Span PNWSPAN, which is a tool constructed to measure verbal working memory, in particular the phonological loop, in the case of adults. The article presents the theoretical framework of the study and the process of construction of the test, namely its structure, scoring and validation procedure.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Biedroń, A. (2019). Polish Nonword Span (PNWSPAN): A new tool for measuring phonological loop capacity. Glottodidactica. An International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 45(2). Pobrano z https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/gl/article/view/13724
Dział
Artykuły
Biogram autora

Adriana Biedroń, Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku, Instytut Neofilologii

Adriana Biedroń is Professor of English at the Faculty of Philology, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Poland, and the Faculty of Philology, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland. She received her doctoral and postdoctoral degrees in applied linguistics from Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland. Her main areas of interest are SLA theory and research, individual differences in SLA, in particular, foreign language aptitude, working memory, intelligence, personality factors and linguistic giftedness. Her recent publications include “Foreign Language Aptitude: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow” (co-authored with Edward Wen and Peter Skehan, 2016, Language Teaching) and “New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness” (co-authored with Mirosław Pawlak, 2016, Language Teaching).

Bibliografia

  1. Abu-Rabia, S. (2003). The influence of working memory on reading and creative writing processes in a second language. Educational Psychology, 23, 209–222. doi:10.1080/01443410303227
  2. Ahmadian, M. J. (2012). The relationship between working memory and oral production under task-based careful online planning condition. TESOL Quarterly, 46 (1), 165–175. doi:10.1002/tesq.8
  3. Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2011). The effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. TESOL Quarterly,45, 235–266. doi: 10.5054/tq.2011.247705
  4. Archibald, L. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Short-term and working memory in specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 41 (6), 675–693. doi:10.1080/13682820500442602
  5. Archibald, L. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (2007). Nonword repetition and serial recall: Equivalent measures of verbal short-term memory? Applied Psycholinguistics, 28 (4), 587–606. doi: 10.1017/S0142716407070324
  6. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–123. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2
  7. Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 189–208. doi:10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4
  8. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47–90). New York, NY: Academic Press.
  9. Baddeley, A. D., Gathercole, S., & Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language acquisition device. Psychological Review, 105,158–173. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.105.1.158
  10. Berquist, B. (1997). Individual differences in working memory span and L2 proficiency: Capacity or processing efficiency? In A. Sorace, C. Heccock, & R. Shillcock (Eds.), Proceedings of the GALA’ 1997 Conference on language acquisition (pp. 468–473). Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh.
  11. Biedroń, A., & Pawlak, M. (2016). The interface between research on individual difference variables and teaching practice: The case of cognitive factors and personality. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching SSLLT 6 (3). 395–422. doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.3.3 2016
  12. Biedroń, A., & Szczepaniak, A. (2012a). Polish reading span test – an instrument for measuring verbal working memory capacity. In J. Badio, & J. Kosecki (Eds.), Cognitive processes in language. Lodz Studies in Language 25 (pp. 29–37). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin: Peter Lang.
  13. Biedroń, A., & Szczepaniak, A. (2012b). Working-memory and short-term memory abilities in accomplished multilinguals. Modern Language Journal, 96, 290–306. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01332.x
  14. Bolibaugh, C., & Foster, P. (2013). Memory-based aptitude for nativelike selection: The role of phonological short-term memory. In G. Granena, & M. Long (Eds.), Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment (pp. 203–228). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  15. Botting, N., Psarou, P., Caplin, T. & Nevin, L. (2013). Short-term memory skills in children with specific language impairment. The effect of verbal and nonverbal task content. Topics in Language Disorders, 33 (4), 313–327. doi: 10.1097/01.TLD.0000437940.01237.51
  16. Cheung, H. (1996) Nonword span as a unique predictor of second-language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 32 (5), 867–873. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.32.5.867
  17. Conway, A. R. A., Jarrold, Ch., Kane, M. J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J. N. (2008). Variation in working memory. An introduction. In A. R. A. Conway, Ch. Jarrold, M. J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J. N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 3–17). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. Conway, A., M. Kane, M. Bunting, D. Hambrick, O. Wilhelm, & Engle, R. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769–786. doi:10.3758/BF03196772
  19. Conway, A., Macnamara, B., & Engel de Abreu, P. (2013). Working memory and intelligence: An overview. In T. P. Alloway, & R. G. Alloway (Eds.), Working memory: The new intelligence (pp.13–36). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  20. DeKeyser, R. (2010). Cognitive-psychological processes in second language learning. In M. H. Long, M. H. & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 119-138). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  21. DeKeyser, R. M., & Juffs, A. (2005). Cognitive considerations in L2 learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 437–454). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  22. DeKeyser, R. M., & Koeth, J. (2011). Cognitive aptitudes for second language learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 395–407). New York. NY: Routledge.
  23. Dollaghan, C., & Campbell, T. F. (1998). Nonword repetition and child language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 1136–1146. doi: 10.1044/jslhr.4105.1136
  24. Doughty, C. J. (2013). Optimizing post-critical-period language learning. In G. Granena, & M. H. Long (Eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 153–175). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  25. Doughty, C. J., Campbell, S. G., Mislevy, M. A., Bunting, M. F., Bowles, A. R., & Koeth, J. T. (2010). Predicting near-native ability: The factor structure and reliability of Hi-LAB. In M. T. Prior, Y. Watanabe, & S-K. Lee (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 2008 Second Language Research Forum (pp. 10–31). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from www.lingref.com, document #2382.
  26. Ellis, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge and instruction. In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Philp, & H. Reinders (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 3-25). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  27. Ellis, N. C., & Sinclair, S. G. (1996). Working memory in the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax: Putting language in good order. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A(1), 234–250.
  28. Engel de Abreu, P. M. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2012). Executive and phonological processes in second-language acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (4), 974–986. doi: 10.1037/a0028390
  29. Fortkamp, M. B. M. (1999). Working memory capacity and aspects of L2 speech production. Communication and Cognition, 32, 259–296. doi: 10.17851/2237-2083.16.2.129-144
  30. Fortkamp, M. B. M. (2003). Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density in L2 speech production. Fragmentos, 24, 69–104. doi: 10.5007/fragmentos.v24i0.7659
  31. Foster, P., Bolibaugh, C., & Kotula, A. (2014). Knowledge of nativelike selections in an L2: The influence of exposure, memory, age of onset and motivation in foreign language and immersion settings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36 (01), 101–132. doi: 10.1017/S0272263113000624
  32. French, L. M., & O’Brien, I. (2008). Phonological memory and children’s second language grammar learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 463–487. doi: 10.1017/S0142716408080211
  33. Gathercole, S. E. (1995) Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 1995, 23 (1), 83–94. doi: 10.3758/BF03210559
  34. Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Nonword repetition and word learning: The nature of the relationship. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27 (4), 513–543. doi: 10.1017/S0142716406060383
  35. Gathercole, S. E., Service, E., Hitch, G. J., Adams, A-M., & Martin, A. J. (1999). Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13 (1), 65–77. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199902)13:1<65::AID-ACP548>3.0.CO;2-O
  36. Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C. S., Baddeley, A. D., & Emslie, H. (1994). The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition: A test of phonological working memory. Memory, 2 (2), 103–127. doi: 10.1080/09658219408258940
  37. Gathercole, S. E., Hitch, G. J., Service, E. & Martin, A. J. (1997). Short-term memory and new word learning in children. Developmental Psychology, 33 (6), 966–979. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.966
  38. Gray, S. 2003. Diagnostic accuracy and test-retest reliability of nonword repetition and digit span tasks administered to preschool children with specific language impairment. Journal of Communication disorders, 36 (3), 129–151. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00003-0
  39. Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100010457
  40. Jefferies, E., Frankish, C. R., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Lexical and semantic binding in verbal short-term memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 54 (1), 81–98. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2005.08.001
  41. Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137–166. doi: 10.1017/S0261444810000509
  42. Kane, M. J., Conway, A. R. A., Hambrick, D. Z., & Engle, R. W. (2008). Variation in working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. In A. R. A. Conway, Ch. Jarrold, M. J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J. N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 21–49). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition,11(2), 261–271. doi:10.1017/S1366728908003416
  44. Leeser, M. (2007). Learner-based factors in L2 reading comprehension and processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language Learning, 57(2), 229–270. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00408.x
  45. Lennon, J. & Slesinski, C. (2002) Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Cognitive-linguistic assessment of severe reading problems. Dumont/Willis.
  46. Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (4), 861–883. doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2
  47. Mackey, A., Philip, J., Egi, T., Fujii, A., & Tatsumi, T. (2002). Individual differences in working memory, noticing interactional feedback and L2 development. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 181–209). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
  48. Martin, K. I., & Ellis, N. C. (2012). The roles of phonological STM and working memory in L2 grammar and vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34 (3), 379–413. doi: 10.1017/S0272263112000125
  49. Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In A. Healy, & L. Bourne (Eds.), Foreign language learning (pp. 339–364). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  50. O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 377–402. doi: 10.1017/S0142716406060322
  51. O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2007). Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 557–582. doi: 10+10170S027226310707043X
  52. Papagno, C., & Vallar, G. (1995). Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A, 98–107. doi: 10.1080/14640749508401378
  53. Pawlak., M. (2017). Overview of learner individual differences and their mediating effects on the process and outcome of interaction. In L. Gurzynski-Weiss (Ed.), Expanding individual difference research in the interaction approach. Investigating learners, instructors, and other interlocutors. Amsterdam – Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  54. Payne, J. S., & Whitney, P. J. (2002). Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. CALICO Journal, 20, 7–32. www.learntechlib.org/p/95531/
  55. Pickering, S. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2001). The Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Hove: The Psychological Corporation.
  56. Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In C. J. Doughty, & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 631–679). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  57. Sawyer, M., & Ranta, L. (2001). Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional design. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 319–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  58. Service, E. (1992). Phonology, working memory and foreign-language learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45 (1), 21–50. doi: 10.1080/14640749208401314
  59. Skehan, P. (2012). Language aptitude. In S. Gass, & A. Mackey (Eds.), Rutledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 381–395). New York, NY: Rutledge.
  60. Speciale, G., Ellis, N. C., & Bywater, T. (2004). Phonological sequence learning and short-term store capacity determine second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25 (2), 293–321. doi: 10.1017/S0142716404001146
  61. Suzuki, Y., & DeKeyser, R. (2017). Exploratory research on second language practice distribution: An Aptitude × Treatment interaction. Applied Psycholinguistics, 38 (1), 27–56. doi:10.1017/S0142716416000084
  62. Wechsler, D. (1997). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–third edition (WAIS III). San Antonio, Tx: The Psychological Corporation.
  63. Wen, Z. (2012). Working memory and second language learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22, 1–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-4192.2011.00290.x
  64. Wen, E. Z. (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing: The Phonological/Executive model. In E. Z. Wen, M. B. Mota, & A. McNeill (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 41–62). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  65. Wen, E. Z. (2016). Working memory and second language learning: Towards an integrated approach. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  66. Wen, E. Z., & Skehan, P. (2011). A new perspective on foreign language aptitude: Building and supporting a case for “working memory as language aptitude”. Ilha Do Desterro: A Journal of English Language, Literatures and Cultural Studies, 60, 15–44. doi:10.5007/2175- 8026.2011n60p015
  67. Wen, E. Z., Biedroń, A., & Skehan, P. (2016). Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Language Teaching, 50 (1). 1–31. doi:10.1017/S0261444816000276
  68. Wen, E. Z., Mota, M. B., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  69. Williams, J. N. (2012). Working memory and SLA. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 427–441). Oxford: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
  70. Williams, J. N., & Lovatt, P. (2003). Phonological Memory and Rule Learning. Language Learning, 53, 67–121. doi: 10.1111/1467-9922.00211
  71. Zychowicz, K., Biedroń, A. & Pawlak, M. (2017). Polish Listening SPAN: A new tool for measuring verbal working memory. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching SSLLT, 7 (4). 601–618. doi:10.14746/ssllt.2017.7.4.3 2017.