Polish Nonword Span (PNWSPAN): A new tool for measuring phonological loop capacity

Main Article Content

Katarzyna Zychowicz
Adriana Biedroń
Mirosław Pawlak

Abstrakt

The phonological loop, which is a component of working memory, is considered to be one of the most significant factors affecting L1 and L2 learning. In order to measure this construct properly, a reliable instrument in the native language of the participants is needed. The purpose of this paper is to present the Polish Nonword Span PNWSPAN, which is a tool constructed to measure verbal working memory, in particular the phonological loop, in the case of adults. The article presents the theoretical framework of the study and the process of construction of the test, namely its structure, scoring and validation procedure

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Dział
Artykuły

Bibliografia

  1. Abu-Rabia, S. (2003). The influence of working memory on reading and creative writing processes in a second language. Educational Psychology, 23, 209–222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410303227.
  2. Ahmadian, M. J. (2012). The relationship between working memory and oral production under task-based careful online planning condition. TESOL Quarterly, 46 (1), 165–175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.8.
  3. Alptekin, C. / Erçetin, G. (2011). The effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 235–266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2011.247705.
  4. Archibald, L. M. / Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Short-term and working memory in specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 41 (6), 675–693. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820500442602.
  5. Archibald, L. M. / Gathercole, S. E. (2007). Nonword repetition and serial recall: Equivalent measures of verbal short-term memory? Applied Psycholinguistics, 28 (4), 587–606. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070324.
  6. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2.
  7. Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 189–208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4.
  8. Baddeley, A. D. / Gathercole, S. / Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language acquisition device. Psychological Review, 105, 158–173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.1.158.
  9. Baddeley, A. D. / Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In: G. Bower (ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (vol. 8, pp. 47–90). New York, NY: Academic Press.
  10. Berquist, B. (1997). Individual differences in working memory span and L2 proficiency: Capacity or processing efficiency? In: A. Sorace / C. Heccock / R. Shillcock (eds.), Proceedings of the GALA’ 1997 Conference on language acquisition (pp. 468–473). Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh.
  11. Biedroń, A. / Pawlak, M. (2016). The interface between research on individual difference variables and teaching practice: The case of cognitive factors and personality. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (SSLLT), 6 (3), 395–422. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.3.3 2016.
  12. Biedroń, A. / Szczepaniak, A. (2012a). Polish reading span test – an instrument for measuring verbal working memory capacity. In: J. Badio / J. Kosecki (eds.), Cognitive processes in language. Lodz Studies in Language (vol. 25, pp. 29–37). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin: Peter Lang.
  13. Biedroń, A. / Szczepaniak, A. (2012b). Working-memory and short-term memory abilities in accomplished multilinguals. Modern Language Journal, 96, 290–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01332.x.
  14. Bolibaugh, C. / Foster, P. (2013). Memory-based aptitude for nativelike selection: The role of phonological short-term memory. In: G. Granena / M. Long (eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 203–228). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  15. Botting, N. / Psarou, P. / Caplin, T. / Nevin, L. (2013). Short-term memory skills in children with specific language impairment. The effect of verbal and nonverbal task content. Topics in Language Disorders, 33 (4), 313–327. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TLD.0000437940.01237.51.
  16. Cheung, H. (1996). Nonword span as a unique predictor of second-language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 32 (5), 867–873. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.32.5.867.
  17. Conway, A. R. A. / Jarrold, Ch. / Kane, M. J. / Miyake, A. / Towse, J. N. (2007). Variation in working memory. An introduction. In: A. R. A. Conway / Ch. Jarrold / M. J. Kane / A. Miyake / J. N. Towse (eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 3–17). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. Conway, A. R. A. / Kane, M. J. / Bunting, M. F. / Hambrick, D. Z. / Wilhelm, O. / Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769–786. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196772.
  19. Conway, A. R. A. / Macnamara, B. / Engel de Abreu, P. (2013). Working memory and intelligence: An overview. In: T. P. Alloway / R. G. Alloway (eds.), Working memory: The new intelligence (pp. 13–36). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  20. DeKeyser, R. M. (2010). Cognitive-psychological processes in second language learning. In: M. H. Long / C. J. Doughty (eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 119–138). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  21. DeKeyser, R. M. / Juffs, A. (2005). Cognitive considerations in L2 learning. In: E. Hinkel (ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 437–454). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  22. DeKeyser, R. M. / Koeth, J. (2011). Cognitive aptitudes for second language learning. In: E. Hinkel (ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 395–407). New York. NY: Routledge.
  23. Dollaghan, C. / Campbell, T. F. (1998). Nonword repetition and child language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 1136–1146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4105.1136.
  24. Doughty, C. J. (2013). Optimizing post-critical-period language learning. In: G. Granena / M. H. Long (eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 153–175). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  25. Doughty, C. J. / Campbell, S. G. / Mislevy, M. A. / Bunting, M. F. / Bowles, A. R. / Koeth, J. T. (2010). Predicting near-native ability: The factor structure and reliability of Hi-LAB. In: M. T. Prior / Y. Watanabe / S.-K. Lee (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 2008 Second Language Research Forum (pp. 10–31). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. www.lingref.com, document #2382.
  26. Ellis, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge and instruction. In: R. Ellis / S. Loewen / C. Elder / R. Erlam / J. Philp / H. Reinders (eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 3–25). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  27. Ellis, N. C. / Sinclair, S. G. (1996). Working memory in the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax: Putting language in good order. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A (1), 234–250.
  28. Engel de Abreu, P. M. J. / Gathercole, S. E. (2012). Executive and phonological processes in second-language acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (4), 974–986. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028390.
  29. Fortkamp, M. B. M. (1999). Working memory capacity and aspects of L2 speech production. Communication and Cognition, 32, 259–296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.16.2.129-144.
  30. Fortkamp, M. B. M. (2003). Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density in L2 speech production. Fragmentos, 24, 69–104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/fragmentos. v24i0.7659.
  31. Foster, P. / Bolibaugh, C. / Kotula, A. (2014). Knowledge of native like selections in an L2: The influence of exposure, memory, age of onset and motivation in foreign language and immersion settings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36 (1), 101–132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000624.
  32. French, L. M. / O’Brien, I. (2008). Phonological memory and children’s second language grammar learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 463–487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716408080211.
  33. Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 23 (1), 83–94. DOI: 10.3758/BF03210559.
  34. Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Nonword repetition and word learning: The nature of the relationship. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27 (4), 513–543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716406060383.
  35. Gathercole, S. E. / Hitch, G. J. / Service, E. / Martin, A. J. (1997). Short-term memory and new word learning in children. Developmental Psychology, 33 (6), 966–979. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.966.
  36. Gathercole, S. E. / Service, E. / Hitch, G. J. / Adams, A.-M. / Martin, A. J. (1999). Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13 (1), 65–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199902)13:1<65::AID-ACP548>3.0.CO;2-O.
  37. Gathercole, S. E. / Willis, C. S., Baddeley, A. D. / Emslie, H. (1994). The children’s test of nonword repetition: A test of phonological working memory. Memory, 2 (2), 103–127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09658219408258940.
  38. Gray, S. (2003). Diagnostic accuracy and test-retest reliability of nonword repetition and digit span tasks administered to preschool children with specific language impairment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36 (3), 129–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00003-0.
  39. Harrington, M. / Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100010457.
  40. Jefferies, E. / Frankish, C. R. / Ralph, M. A. L. (2006). Lexical and semantic binding in verbal short-term memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 54 (1), 81–98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml. 2005.08.001.
  41. Juffs, A. / Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137–166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000509.
  42. Kane, M. J. / Conway, A. R. A. / Hambrick, D. Z. / Engle, R. W. (2008). Variation in working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. In: A. R. A. Conway / Ch. Jarrold / M. J. Kane / A. Miyake / J. N. Towse (eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 21–49). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. Kormos, J. / Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (2), 261–271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003416.
  44. Leeser, M. (2007). Learner-based factors in L2 reading comprehension and processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language Learning, 57 (2), 229–270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00408.
  45. Lennon, J. / Slesinski, C. (2001). Comprehensive test of phonological processing (CTOPP): Cognitive-linguistic assessment of severe reading problems. Communique, 29, 38–40.
  46. Linck, J. A. / Osthus, P. / Koeth, J. T. / Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (4), 861–883. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2.
  47. Mackey, A. / Philip, J. / Egi, T. / Fujii, A. / Tatsumi, T. (2002). Individual differences in working memory, noticing interactional feedback and L2 development. In: P. Robinson (ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 181–209). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
  48. Martin, K. I. / Ellis, N. C. (2012). The roles of phonological STM and working memory in L2 grammar and vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34 (3), 379–413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263112000125.
  49. Miyake, A. / Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In: A. Healy / L. Bourne (eds.), Foreign language learning (pp. 339–364). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  50. O’Brien, I. /Segalowitz, N. / Collentine, J. / Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 377–402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716406060322.
  51. O’Brien, I. / Segalowitz, N. /Collentine, J. / Freed, B. (2007). Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 557–582. DOI: https://doi.org/10+10170S027226310707043X.
  52. Papagno, C. / Vallar, G. (1995). Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A, 98–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749508401378.
  53. Pawlak, M. (2017). Overview of learner individual differences and their mediating effects on the process and outcome of interaction. In: L. Gurzynski-Weiss (ed.), Expanding individual difference research in the interaction approach. Investigating learners, instructors, and other interlocutors. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  54. Payne, J. S. / Whitney, P. J. (2002). Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. CALICO Journal, 20, 7–32. www.learntechlib.org/p/95531/.
  55. Pickering, S. J. / Gathercole, S. E. (2001). The working memory test battery for children. Hove: The Psychological Corporation.
  56. Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In: C. J. Doughty / M. H. Long (eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 631–679). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  57. Sawyer, M. / Ranta, L. (2001). Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional design. In: P. Robinson (ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 319–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  58. Service, E. (1992). Phonology, working memory and foreign-language learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45 (1), 21–50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749208401314.
  59. Skehan, P. (2012). Language aptitude. In: S. Gass / A. Mackey (eds.), Rutledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 381–395). New York, NY: Rutledge.
  60. Speciale, G. / Ellis, N. C. / Bywater, T. (2004). Phonological sequence learning and short-term store capacity determine second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25 (2), 293–321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716404001146.
  61. Suzuki, Y. / DeKeyser, R. (2017). Exploratory research on second language practice distribution: An Aptitude × Treatment Interaction. Applied Psycholinguistics, 38 (1), 27–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716416000084.
  62. Wechsler, D. (1997). Manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. Third edition (WAIS III). San Antonio, Tx: The Psychological Corporation.
  63. Wen, E. Z. (2012). Working memory and second language learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22, 1–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2011.00290.
  64. Wen, E. Z. (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing: The phonological/ executive model. In: E. Z. Wen / M. B. Mota / A. McNeill (eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 41–62). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  65. Wen, E. Z. (2016). Working memory and second language learning: Towards an integrated approach. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  66. Wen, E. Z. / Biedroń, A. / Skehan, P. (2016). Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Language Teaching, 50 (1), 1–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444816000276.
  67. Wen, E. Z. / Mota, M. B. / McNeill, A. (eds.) (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  68. Wen, E. Z. / Skehan, P. (2011). A new perspective on foreign language aptitude: Building and supporting a case for “working memory as language aptitude”. Ilha Do Desterro: A Journal of English Language, Literatures and Cultural Studies, 60, 15–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p015.
  69. Williams, J. N. (2012). Working memory and SLA. In: S. Gass / A. Mackey (eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 427–441). Oxford: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
  70. Williams, J. N. / Lovatt, P. (2003). Phonological memory and rule learning. Language Learning, 53, 67–121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00211.
  71. Zychowicz, K. / Biedroń, A. / Pawlak, M. (2017). Polish listening SPAN: A new tool for measuring verbal working memory. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching SSLLT, 7 (4), 601–618. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2017.7.4.3 2017.