Main Article Content
Organista Natalia, Halter–Bogołębska Martyna, Sport in the new media. Media coverages of selected sport disciplines during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Culture – Society – Education no 2(16) 2019, Poznań 2019, pp. 203–224, Adam Mickiewicz University Press. ISSN 2300–0422. DOI 10.14746/kse.2019.16.13.
This study concerns the online sports media coverage, a topic that has not been previously analyzed in Poland. In recent decades many studies (in Anglo–Saxon countries in particular) indicated the major underrepresentation of women’s sport and different framing of sportswomen andsportsmen. Those studies showed that the media plays important role in upholding gender stereotypes in sport and hindering empowerment of sportswomen. This study analyzes media coverage of three sports disciplines (gymnastics,swimming and weightlifting) during Rio Olympics on five websites. Findings revealed underrepresentation of women’s sport and setting the trend to write about women’s sport in disciplines consider as appropriated for women. The qualitative analysis did not indicate gender–specific descriptors in materials about sportspeople.
- Angelini J.R., MacArthur P.J., Billings A.C. (2012), What’s the gendered story? Vancouver’s prime time Olympic glory on NBC, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, pp. 261–279.
- Babbie E. (2009), Podstawy badań społecznych, Warszawa.
- Bauer Z. (2009), Dziennikarstwo wobec nowych mediów. Historia, teoria, praktyka, Kraków.
- Billings A.C. (2008), Olympic Media. Inside the biggiest show on television, London.
- Billings A.C., Brown Ch.L., Crout J.H. III, McKenna K., Rice B., Timanus M., Ziegler, J. (2008), The games through the NBC lens: Gender, ethnic, and national equity in the 2006 Torino Winter Olympics, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 52, pp. 215–230.
- Billings A.C., Young B.D. (2015), Comparing flagship news programs women’s sport coverage in ESPN’s SportsCenter and FOX Sports 1’s FOX Sports Live, Electronic News 9, pp. 2–16.
- Bishop R. (2003), Missing in action. Feature coverage of women’s sport in Sport Illustrated, Journal of Sport and Social Issues 27, pp. 184–194.
- Bissell K.L., Duke A.M. (2007), Bump, set, spike: An analysis of commentary and camera angles of women’s beach volleyball during the 2004 summer Olympics, Journal of Promotion Management 13(1–2), pp. 35–53.
- Bruce T. (2016), New rules for new times: Sportswomen and media representation in the third wave, Sex Roles 74(7–8), pp. 361–376.
- Burch L.M., Eagleman A.N., Pedersen P.M. (2012), New media coverage of gender in the 2010 Winter Olympics: An examination of online media content, International Journal of Sport Management 13, pp. 143–159.
- Capranica L., Minganti C., Billat V., Hanghoj S., Piacentini M. F., Cumps E., & Meeusen R. (2005), Newspaper coverage of women’s sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 76(2), pp. 212–223.
- Cooky Ch. (2009), “Girls Just Aren’t Interested”: The social construction of interest in girls’ sport, Sociological Perspectives 52(2), pp. 259–283.
- Cooky Ch., Messner M.A., Musto M. (2015), “It’s dude time!”: A quarter century of excluding women’s sports in televised news and highlights shows, Communication & Sport 3, pp. 261–287.
- Crolley L., Teso E. (2007), Gendered narratives in Spain. The representation of female athletes in Marca and El País, International Review for the Sociology of Sport 42/2, pp. 149–166.
- Cronk A., Theberge N. (1994), Work routines in newspaper sport departments and the coverage of women’s sports, [in:] S. Birrell, Ch. Cole (red.), Women, Sport and Culture, Champaign, pp. 289–298.
- Daddario G. (1994), Chilly scenes of the 1992 Winter Games: The mass media and the marginalization of female athletes, Sociology of Sport Journal 11(3), pp. 275–288.
- Dziubiński Z., Organista N., Mazur Z. (2019), Still marginalized: Gender inequalities in the largest Polish daily’s sports coverage, Communications 44(1), pp. 33–57.
- Eagleman A. (2015), Constructing gender differences: newspaper portrayals of male and female gymnasts at the 2012 Olympic Games, Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 18, pp. 234–247.
- Eagleman A., Burch L.M., Vooris R. (2014), A unified version of London 2012: New-media coverage of gender, nationality, and sport for Olympics consumers in six countries, Journal of Sport Management 28(4), pp. 457–470.
- Feliksiak M. (2016), Korzystanie z Internetu, Komunikat z Badań CBOS nr 92, http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2016/K_092_16.PDF, accessed: 1.08.2017.
- Fink J.S. (2015), Female athletes, women’s sport, and the sport media commercial complex: Have we really „come a long way baby”?, Sport Management Review 18, pp. 331–342.
- Fink J.S., Kensicki L.J. (2002), An imperceptible difference: Visual and textual constructions of femininity in Sports Illustrated and Sports Illustrated for Women, Mass Communication & Society 5(3), pp. 317–339.
- Gee B.L., Leberman S.I. (2011), Sports media decision making in France: How they choose what we get to see and read, International Journal of Sport Communication 4(3), pp. 321–343.
- Godoy-Pressland A. (2014), ‘Nothing to report’: a semi-longitudinal investigation of the print media coverage of sportswomen in British Sunday newspapers, Media, Culture & Society 36(5), pp. 595–609.
- Goffman E. (1974), Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, New York.
- Greer J.D., Hardin M., Homan C. (2009), “Naturally” less exciting? Visual production of men’s and women’s track and field coverage during the 2004 Olympics, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 53, pp. 173–189.
- Griswold W. (2013), Socjologia kultury, Kultury i społeczeństwa w zmieniającym się świecie, Warszawa.
- Hardin M., Shain, S. (2005), Female sport journalist: Are we there yet? ‘No.’, Newspaper Research Journal 26, pp. 22–35.
- Hardin M., Shain, S. (2006), “Feeling much smaller than you know you are”: The fragmented professional identity of female sports journalists, Critical Studies in Media Communication 23, pp. 322–338.
- Harris J., Clayton B. (2002), Femininity, masculinity, physicality and the English tabloid press, International Review for the Sociology of Sport 37, pp. 397–413.
- Hendenborg S. (2013), The Olympic Games in London 2012 from Swedish media perspective, The International Journal of the History of Sport 30, pp. 789–804.
- International Olympic Committee (2016), Factsheet. Women in the Olympic Movement, https://stillmed.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/Women_in_Olympic_Movement.pdf, accessed: 2.11.2016.
- Jakubowska H. (2014), Gra ciałem: praktyki i dyskursy różnicowania płci w sporcie, Warszawa.
- Jakubowska H. (2015), Are women still the ‘other sex’: gender and sport in the Polish mass media, Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 18, pp. 168–185.
- Jones D. (2004), Half the story? Olympic women on ABC News online, Media International Australia 110, pp. 132–146.
- Jones D. (2006), The representation of female athletes in online images of successive Olympics, Pacific Journalism Review 12, pp. 108–129.
- Jones D. (2010), Women’s sports coverage: Online images of the 2008 Olympic Games, Australian Journalism Review 32(2), pp. 89–102.
- Jones D. (2013), Online coverage of the 2008 Olympic Games on the ABC, BBC, CBC and TVNZ, Pacific Journalism Review 19(1), pp. 244–263.
- Kane M.J. (2013), The better sportswomen get, the more the media ignore them, Communication & Sport 1(3), pp. 231–236.
- Kian E.T., Mondello M., Vincent J. (2009), ESPN – The women’s sports network? A content analysis of Internet coverage of March Madness, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 53(3), pp. 477–495.
- Kian M.E. (2007), Gender in sports writing by the print media: an explanatory examination of writers’ experiences and attitudes, The SMART Journal, 4, pp. 5–26.
- Kian M.E., Hardin M. (2009), Framing of sport coverage based on the sex of sports writers: female journalists counter the traditional gendering of media coverage, International Journal of Sport Communication 2, pp. 185–204.
- Kimmel M.S. (1989), Baseball and the reconstruction of American masculinity, 1880–1920, [in:] M.A. Messner, D.F. Sabo (eds.), Sport, Men and the Gender Order, Champaign.
- Koivula N. (2001), Perceived characteristics of sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine and masculine, Journal of Sport Behavior 24(4), p. 377.
- Martin T.G., Suh Y.I., Williams A.S., Locey J., Ramirez J., Alea M. (2016), Comparative analysis of female and male coverage on ESPN’s SportsCenter, Global Sport Business Journal 4, pp. 14–24.
- Messner M.A. (1998), Sport and men domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal 5, pp. 197–211.
- Messner M.A., Dworkin S.L. (2002), Just do what? Sport, bodies, gender, [in:] S. Scraton, A. Flintoff (eds.), Sport and Gender. A reader, New York, pp. 17–29.
- Miloch K.S., Pedersen P.M., Smucker M.K., Whisenant W.A. (2005), The current state of women print journalists: An analysis of the status and careers of females in newspapers sports departments, Public Organization Review 5(3), pp. 219–232.
- O’Neill D., Mulready M. (2014), The invisible woman?, Journalism Practice”, DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2014.965925.
- Pallus P. (2016), Prawie 29 mln Polaków obejrzało chociaż fragment transmisji z igrzysk, Business Insider Polska, http://businessinsider.com.pl/media/tv-radio/rio-igrzyska-olimpijskie-2016-podsumowanie-wyniki-ogladalnosci/cphvypz, accessed: 20.03.2017.
- Real M. (2006), Sports online: The newest player in mediasport, [in:] A. Raney, J. Bryant (eds.), Handbook of Sports and Media, London, pp. 171–184.
- Rowe D. (2004), Sport, Culture and the Media, London.
- Sabo D., Miller K.E., Melnick M.J., Heywood L. (2004), Her Life De-Pends On It: Sport, physical activity and the health and well-being of American girls, New York.
- Schoch L., Ohl F. (2011), Women sports journalists in Switzerland: Between assignment and negotiation of roles, Sociology of Sport Journal 28(2), pp. 189–208.
- Sherry E., Osborne A., Nicholson M. (2016), Images of sports women: A review, Sex Roles 74(7–8), pp. 299–309.
- Subrahmanyam K., Greenfield P., Kraut R., Gross E. (2001), The impact of computer use on children’s and adolescents’ development, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 22(1), pp. 7–30.
- Tuchman G. (1979), Women’s depiction by the mass media, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 3, pp. 528–524.
- Turner J.S. (2014), A longitudinal content analysis of gender and ethnicity portrayals on ESPN’s SportsCenter from 1999–2009, Communication & Sport 4, pp. 303–327.
- Van Zoonen L. (2002)l, Gendering the Internet: Claims, controversies and cultures, European Journal of Communication 17(1), pp. 5–23.
- Wensing E., Bruce, T. (2003), Bending the rules. Media representations of gender during an International Sporting Events, International Review for the Sociology of Sport 38, pp. 387–396.
- Whitson D. (1989), Sport in the social construction of masculinity, [in:] M.A. Messner, D.F. Sabo (eds.), Sport, Men and the Gender Order, Champaign.