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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The author accepts the guidelines for authors, adopted in the Porównania journal.

Stylesheet for Porównania


  1. General information

By submitting a manuscript to Porównania, the author(s) hereby declares that the work in question has not been published elsewhere in any form, either online or in print, and that the works is original. Before submitting a manuscript, please fill out, sign and send the publication contract available on the journal website.

The Editorial Board reserves the right to reject manuscripts that do not adhere to the publishing rules, standards of cooperation, publication ethics as stipulated on the Journal’s website.

The views and opinions expressed in the published text are those of the authors and do not state or reflect those of the editors, the editorial board of Porównania.


  1. Preparation for print

When preparing your paper for review and publication, please adhere to the following rules:

  1. The length of the paper should not exceed 20,000 characters with spaces.
  2. Please send your paper in MS Word doc format with the following document settings
    1. Times New Roman 12
    2. Line spacing 1.5 lines
  3. Keywords (no more than 6) in native language and English.
  4. Abstract (with the title of the article) in the native language and English (1,000 characters with spaces max.).
  5. A note about the author (750 characters with spaces max.) in Polish or English according to the following template:

Name and surname – academic title (e.g. Anna Kowalska – prof. UAM), basic information: affiliation. Academic interests. Most important publications.


ORCID: (if possible)

  1. Citations – according to MLA Style. Bibliographical information should be formatted in the Harvard reference style; author – year. It is based on a two-element system of citation: referencing source material in the body of the text as well as alphabetically arranged work cited page situated at the end of the article. Footnotes are to be used only as supplemental information that is relevant the main text (explanatory notes and lexical definitions). The number of footnotes should be kept to a minimum. When simply citing the source, use in-text citations.


  1. Manuscript structure
  2. Elements of the text should be arranged in the following order:
    • Name and Surname
    • Name of department or any other organizational unit, name of university or any other academic organization (in its original language, e.g. “Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre”)
    • Title (not in capital letters)
    • The body of the article
    • Work Cited
    • Abstract PL
      • Name and Surname
      • Title
      • Abstract
      • Keywords
    • Abstract EN
      • Name and Surname
      • Title
      • Abstract
      • Keywords
    • A note about the author
    • E-mail
    • ORCID (if possible)


When the text is divided into smaller components with subtitles, the following numbering system should be applied:

  1. First subtitle
    • Second subtitle
      • Third subtitle


Avoid creating too many subdivisions (no more than three levels).


  1. Detailed guidelines
  1. Standardization
    • Date and year:
      • Dates should be written in the following format: February 5, 2020.
    • Use the following abbreviations: e.g., i.e., etc.
    • Lists
      • Short lists, where the order is of no relevance, should be written after a colon: (e.g. poetic devices: “illustrative” ekphrasis, sensual Homeric epithets, anacoluthons)
      • Longer lists should be set out as indents for clarity:
        • When the listed elements are short, use the following template:
  1. A) How radios work:

1) Radio waves,

2) AM and FM waves are different:

  1. a) AM waves,
  2. b) FM waves,
  3. B) Radio Industry:

1) Two ways of assigning call letters:

  1. a) Old stations,
  2. b) New stations.

2) Careers in broadcasting:

  1. a) Organizing structure of station,
  2. b) On-air personalities:

                        – training,

                        – responsibilities.


  • When any of the listed elements is longer than one sentence, use the following template:
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua:
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua:
    1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
    2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua:
      • Lorem ipsum,
      • Lorem ipsum.
    3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua:
      1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua:
        • Lorem ipsum,
        • Lorem ipsum.


  • Dashes in ranges
    • Ranges of dates and pages are set off using an en dash ­(–), e.g. 1990–1995; Smith 2003: 111–114. Do not abbreviate (e.g. 1990–95 or 111–4).
  • Numerals
    • Spell out numerals zero through nine and use numerals thereafter. Spell out numbers that can be written in one or two words (three, fifteen, seventy-six, one thousand, twelve billion) and use numerals for other numbers (2¾; 584; 1,001; 25,000,000). Always spell out the number at the beginning of the sentence.
  • Centuries and decades should be spelled out in lowercase letters (e.g. ninth century, twentieth century). Spell out decades (the sixties, the seventies) or if the decade is identified by century, write them as plural numerals (1920s, 1880s).
  • Initials
    • Initials in names should be written without spaces (e.g. B.B. Dyer, J.E.B. Stuart)
    • The first time you mention a person in a sentence, use his or her full name, not the initials, unless the author is famously known only by initials (T.S. Eliot).
    • Don’t put initials in parenthetical citations unless that’s the only possible way of distinguishing between two different sources (two authors who have the same last name).
  1. All foreign language quotes should be translated: 
    • The translated quote in the body of the text with the quote in its original language in the footnote
    • The original language quote in the body of the text and the translation in the footnote
    • The translation in the body of the text with the source in the footnote without the original quote 
  2. Translated book titles
    • Foreign language titles published in English
      • The title is given in the original language followed by the English title (italicized and in parentheses)
        • Der Zauberberg (The Magic Mountain)
      • Foreign-language titles that have not been published in English
        • The original title is given and then the translated title (in parenthesis and not italicized)
          • Das Wunderkind (The Child Prodigy)
  1. In-text quotations should go into “double quotes.” Do not italicize the text unless italics are used in the original.
    • If the quotation exceeds 200 characters use block quotations (10 pts). Use double quotes when citing within such a quotation.
    • ‘Single quotes’ should be used for quotations within quotations.
    • Use ellipsis when omitting a work, phrase, or sentence in a quote. Do not put the ellipsis in brackets.
    • Do not use the ellipsis mark at the start or end of a quotation as the placement of your start or end quotation marks signals where you begin and end your quote 
    • Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the quoted material is a complete sentence. Do not use a capital letter when the quoted material is a fragment or only a piece of the original material's complete sentence.
    • If emphasizing any fragment in a quote, include [emphasis added] after the quote. Do not use the authors name or initials in the brackets, e.g. “Litwo, ojczyzno moja” [emphasis added] (Mickiewicz 5).
  2. When mentioning a name for the first time:
    • In the title
    • In the body of the text
    • In the footnotes

use the full first and last name and afterwards only the surname (e.g. Samuel Beckett)

  1. Use the colon (:) for subtitles. For example, Self-Consuming Artefacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature.
  2. Put quotation marks after commas and periods. Examples:
    • “quotation marks.”
    • “quotation,” marks
  3. Place colons and semicolons outside closed quotation marks
  4. Question marks can vary depending if the question is part of the quote, then the punctuation mark goes inside the quotation marks. If the question is not part of the direct quote, it goes outside.
  5. Dashes should be shown as em-dashes, with no space before or after the dash, e.g.
    • He felt—understandably enough—offended.
  1. In-text citations:

Provide parenthetical citations that follow the author-page method:

(Smith 23)

If you are quoting more than one work by a particular author, include the date of publication, using the following punctuation:

(Smith 1990: 23)

If you are quoting more than one source published on the same year by the same author, add a letter to the year of publication “a” and “b”, etc.

(Smith 1990a: 23)

(Smith 1990b: 40)

(Smith 1990c: 7)


If the quoted source has two or three authors, list their names after a comma:

(Smith, Baker 2020a: 23)

(Smith, Baker 2020b: 45)


If the quoted source has more than three authors, include the name of the first author followed by the phrase et al.

(Smith et al. 23)


When quoting a collected work, include the name of the editor or editors:

(Smith, Baker, eds. 5)

If the author’s name of source material (e.g. found online) is not given, include the title (abbreviated if longer than three words), and if that is also missing, provide the first words of the text.


(New forms of cooperation… 7)


When quoting online material that does not have a date of publication, provide the year in which the material was accessed:


(Smith, accessed 2010: 9)


References using “see also” or the abbreviation cf. (compare) should be used in the following way:

(cf. Smith 3)


Take care not to use the abbreviation cf., as an alternative to see also. Whereas “see also” is used to direct a reader to a supplementary work, cf. is used to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with a source.


References to more than one simultaneously discussed publications should be set apart with semicolons:

(cf. Smith 5; Weston 7)


When the reference regards two works of the same author, the years of publishing should be set apart with commas:

(Smith, Weston 2020a: 23, 2020b: 45)


When citing a source in another source, include information about the original source.

(qtd. in Malinowski 23–32)                                                                              

Please refrain from indirect referencing (a source cited in another source). Try to locate original sources and use them in your text.


  1. Work Cited

The works cited page should be placed at the end of the article in alphabetical order according to the surname of authors or according to the titles if there are no authors given. List works by same authors in order of year of publication (earliest first).

Transliteration of sources written in Cyrillic in both the text and the works cited page should be placed in brackets.

The following format also applies to foreign works.

The works cited page should be arranged according to the following guidelines:


A book with one author:

Spark, Muriel. The Public Image. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990. 

Books with more than one author/editor

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds. The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 1995.

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.

Edited collection/anthology

Peterson, Nancy, ed. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Work/chapter in an edited collection/anthology/book:

O’Connor, Flannery. “The Life You Save May Be Your Own.” The Realm of Fiction: Seventy-Four Stories. Eds. James B. Hall and Elizabeth C. Hall. New York: McGraw, 1977. 479­–88.

García Márquez, Gabriel. “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings.” “Leaf Storms” and Other Stories. Trans. Gregory Rabassa. New York: Harper, 1972. 105–12.

Published letters (add the number if it is assigned)


Woolf, Virginia. “To T.S. Eliot.” 28 July 1920. Letter 1138 of The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Ed. Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann. Vol. 2. New York: Harcourt, 1976. 437–38.


Book in a series

If your book is part of a series and if it would help your reader to know that it is part of a series, the series name and number (if any) should be given after the date of publication. Do not italicize or put in quotes. 


Regensburer, Linda. The American Family: Reflections of Changing Nation. NY: Gale Group, 2001. Information Plus Reference Series.


Two or more works by the same author


Byatt, A.S. Possession: A Romance. London: Vintage, 1991.

---. Interview with Nicolas Tredell. Conversations with Critics. Ed. Nicolas Tredell. Manchester: Carcanet, 1994. 58–73.


Article in a journal

Banville, John. “Erin Go Bust.” New York Times 16 Oct. 2008: 39.


Howley, Ann F. “Reading Elaine: Marjorie Richardson’s and L.M. Montgomery’s Red-haired Maids.” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 32.2 (2007): 86–109.


Note! Provide the digital object identifier (DOI) when available regardless of the source used (digital or print). When using a digital source, give the DOI instead of the www address and date accessed. The DOI should be given in the form of a link: https://doi.org/ (e.g. https://doi.org/10.14746/pspsj.2019.26.2.4). 


Internet source – a description of an electronic source should include the following elements: name and surname of the author, title, place of publication (if available), year of publication (if available), date of update/novelization (in the case of dictionaries or legal acts—if available), the source of the document, (difficult to read website domains (e.g. longer than 30 characters or containing numbers and letters which do not spell out words) should be reduced using the following website https://tinyurl.com).

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.



Lucas, George, dir. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Radio broadcast:

“The Blessing Way.” The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

 Archival materials:


Summers, Clara. Letter to Steven Summers. 29 June 1942. Box 1, Folder 1. MSP 94 Steven and Clara Summers papers. Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections Research Center, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, IN. 20 May 2013.



Please format the bibliographical references in accordance with the MLA guidelines. If you require more specific guidelines concerning the MLA style, you may find them in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (www.mlahandbook.org). Alternatively, detailed online guides can be found for example here: http://library.williams.edu/citing/styles/mla.php or here: http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/mla.php 


When citing sources from languages other than English, please use the English editions of the publications. When English editions are not available and you are the translator, please indicate it in your paper. All foreign titles should be translated into English in the Works Cited list in [the square brackets] after the original title.

  1. Illustrations

When including in the article any illustration that do not belong to the public domain, it is necessary to obtain signed permission from the author (or from the descendants) found in here).

In the case of public domain illustrations, the following information is required:

  • name and surname of the author,
  • date of death,
  • title of the work,
  • year of publication.

Provide also the source of the reproduction.

We would also like to draw your attention to the fact that even though the work (e.g. picture) can be found in the public domain, its photograph is a separate work protected by copyrights laws. As a result, museums can sell licenses to reproduce a particular work belonging to its collection, as they can have exclusivity on its reproduction.

We would ask that you not take photographs of illustrations appearing in other publications in order to reproduce them. In the event of there being no alternative, scan the illustration at a resolution no lower than 300 dpi. There is, however, the risk of causing the so-called “moiré effect,” i.e. distortion due to the superimposition of two rasters: the original and secondary.

Illustrations should be sent as separate files (JPG or TIFF) at a resolution at least 1600 × 1200 px. Files with illustrations should be labeled (il_01, il_02 etc.). Please do not place illustrations in DOC files. To indicate where in the text these illustrations should be added, write the file name in angle brackets <il_01>, <il_02> etc. An illustration list should include illustration descriptions and source.

Descriptions of illustrations and tables should be located in the place where the given graphic will be found. They should be introduced in the following way:

  • Illustrations: Fig. 1, Fig. 2 etc. 
  • Tables: Table 1, Table 2 etc. 

  1. Copyrights

Articles published in Porównania on the Pressto platform are property of The Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and are made available under a Creative Commons license Attributing authorship – Creative commons 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0)

Therefore, everyone is welcome to use the published articles under the following conditions:

  • attributing authorship: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made (references to the original work, DOI).
  • no derivatives: If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
  • no additional restrictions: you cannot apply legal and technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

The Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań holds the publishing rights of the journal in its entirety (layout, title, cover design, logo, etc.).

The author reserves intellectual property rights, but gives permission to The Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań to make use of the published material.

The author of a manuscript accepted for publication is obliged to download, print (double-sided) in two copies, fill out (with the exception of the dates), sign and send the contract to the address of the Journal the publishing agreement: umowa (PL)  agreement (EN). One copy of the agreement signed by the Editor-in-Chief is then sent back to the author along with an author’s copy of the publication to the correspondence address included in the agreement (in the case of agreements in English, where the address is not included, it is necessary to email the home address to psp@amu.edu.pl – this should be done no later than on the day of accepting the manuscript for print.



Revising the manuscript before submission

The authors are asked to check that the manuscript adheres to the following criteria:

  • The article has not been already published, has not been submitted for publication elsewhere and is not going through the review process,
  • File forma: MS Word, DOC (using other word editors, such as LibreOffice or OpenOffice risks errors appearing during the editorial process (missing spaces and formatting errors),
  • In places where possible include valid and functioning URL addresses,
  • Web addresses that are difficult to read (e.g. longer than 30 characters or containing numbers and letters which do not spell out words) have been reduced using the following website: https://tinyurl.com,
  • The text does not contain double spaces, the font size is set to 12 pt, emphasized fragments are written in bold print (not using spaces between letters or underlined), and the whole all the illustrations have been situated in the correct places of the text (not at the end of the article),
  • The manuscript adheres to the guidelines included in the Porównania stylesheet.