Attitudes of parents and children towards people with disabilities and their integration into society

Main Article Content

Hila Fuchs


This study is part of a broader study that examined the correlation between cognitive, psychological, and behavioural abilities in parents and their children. It focuses on the correlations between attitude to disability and the integration of people with disabilities among parents and their children. This study is a two-part integrated study. In the first part, the data were collected and analysed according to a quantitative methodology to examine access to disabilities, the integration of people with disabilities, and the factors that influence attitudes, feelings, and willingness to integrate with the general population. In the second part, the data were collected and analysed according to a qualitative methodology in order to examine the relationship of attitudes of parents and their children towards people with disabilities and the integration of people with disabilities.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Fuchs, H. (2021). Attitudes of parents and children towards people with disabilities and their integration into society. Kultura-Społeczeństwo-Edukacja, 20(2), 91-109.


  1. Adriani F., & Sonderegger S. (2009), Why Do Parents Socialize Their Children to Behave Prosocially? An Information-Based Theory, Journal of Public Economics, 93(11–12), pp. 1119– 1124.
  2. Algood C.L., Harris C., & Hong J.S. (2013), Parenting Success and Challenges for Families of Children with Disabilities: An Ecological Systems Analysis, Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(2), pp. 126–136.
  3. Andolina M.W., Jenkins K., Zukin C., & Keeter S. (2003), Habits from Home, Lessons from School: Influences on Youth Civic Engagement, Political Science and Politics, 36, pp. 275–280.
  4. Bandura A., & Simon K.M. (1977), The Role of Proximal Intentions in Self-Regulation of Refractory Behavior, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(3), pp. 177–193.
  5. Baumrind D. (1977), The Development of Instrumental Competence through Socialization, [in:] A.D. Pick (ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 3–46.
  6. Becker A. (2009), With Whom DID You Play in School Today? The Social World of Very Young Children, Raanana [Hebrew].
  7. Bekkers R. (2007), Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering, Acta Sociologica, 50(2), pp. 99–114.
  8. Ben-David B., & Nel N. (2013), Applying Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal, Africa Education Review, 10(3), pp. 410–430.
  9. Berger K.S. (2009), Psicología del Desarrollo: Adultez y Vejez, Madrid.
  10. Berger P.L., & Luckmann T. (1966), The Social Construction of Reality, New York.
  11. Berk L.E. (2013), Child Development (9th edition), New Jersey.
  12. Bowen M. (1966), The Use of Family Theory in Clinical Practice, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 7(5), pp. 345–374.
  13. Bowen M. (1978), Family Therapy in Clinical Practice, New York: Aronson.
  14. Britt S.L. (2016), The Intergenerational Transference of Money Attitudes and Behaviors, The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 50(3), pp. 539–556.
  15. Bronfenbrenner U. (1994), Ecological Models of Human Development, [in:] T. Husen, T.N. Postlethwaite (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education, 3, pp. 1643–1647.
  16. Brown W.H., Odom S.L., & McConnell S.R. (eds.) (2008), Social Competence of Young Children: Risk, Disability, and Intervention, Baltimore.
  17. Chubon R.A. (1992), Attitudes Toward Disability: Addressing Fundamentals of Attitude Theory and Research in Rehabilitation Education, Rehabilitation Education, 6, pp. 301–312.
  18. Coatsworth J.D., Duncan L.G., Greenberg M.T., & Nix R.L. (2010), Changing Parent’s Mindfulness, Child Management Skills and Relationship Quality with Their Youth: Results from a Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), pp. 203–217.
  19. Cohen J., Onunaku N., Clothier S., & Poppe J. (2005), Helping Young Children Succeed: Strategies to Promote Early Childhood Social and Emotional Development, [in:] Research and Policy Report, National Conference of State Legislatures, Washington, DC.
  20. Corrigan P.W., Markowitz F.E., Watson A., Rowan D., & Kubiak M.A. (2003), An Attribution Model of Public Discrimination Towards Persons with Mental Illness, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(2), pp. 162–179.
  21. Dahl A., Schuck R.K., & Campos J.J. (2013), Do Young Toddlers Act On Their Social Preferences?, Developmental Psychology, 49(10), p. 1964–1970.
  22. Damon W., & Lerner R.M. (eds.) (2006), Handbook of Child Psychology, Theoretical Models of Human Development, Hoboken, New Jersey.
  23. Darling A., & Steinberg L. (1993), Parenting Style as Context: An Integrative Model, Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), pp. 487–496.
  24. Daruwalla P., & Darcy S. (2005), Personal and Societal Attitudes to Disability, Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), pp. 549–570.
  25. DiBiase R., & Miller P.M. (2012), Predicting Feelings of Cognitive Competence in Head Start Preschoolers, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 173(1), pp. 23–40.
  26. Dotti Sani G.M., & Treas J. (2016), Educational Gradients in Parents’ Child-Care Time Across Countries, 1965–2012, Journal of Marriage and Family.
  27. Ely R., Gleason J.B., MacGibbon A., & Zaretsky E. (2001), Attention to Language: Lessons Learned at the Dinner Table, Social Development, 10(3), pp. 355–373.
  28. Endres J.E. (1979), Fear of Death and Attitudinal Dispositions Toward Physical Disability, doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, university microfilm, 825, pp. 79–11.
  29. Erath S.A., & Bierman K.L. (2006), Aggressive Marital Conflict, Maternal Harsh Punishment, and Child Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations, Journal of Family Psychology, 20(2), pp. 217–226.
  30. Esdaile S.A., & Greenwood K.M. (2003), A Comparison of Mothers’ and Fathers’ Experience of Parenting Stress and Attributions for Parent-Child Interaction Outcomes, Occupational Therapy International, 10(2), pp. 115–126.
  31. Festinger L. (1957), A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, vol. 2, Stanford.
  32. Fine J.A. (1978), Castration Anxiety and Self Concept of Physically Normal Children as Related to Perceptual Awareness of Attitudes Toward Physical Deviance, unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.
  33. Fonagy P., & Target M. (2002), Early Intervention and the Development of Self-Regulation, Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22(3), pp. 307–335.
  34. Gergen K.J. (1986), Correspondence Versus Autonomy in the Language of Understanding Human Action, Metatheory in Social Science, pp. 136–162.
  35. Gergen K., & Gergen M. (1986), Social Psychology (2nd edition), New York.
  36. Geva A. (2014), Consumer Behavior, Raanana: The Open University, Israel [Hebrew].
  37. Gilad D., & Barak D. (2012), Rehabilitation in an Age of Change in Discourse between People with Disabilities and Society, [in:] M. Hovav, E. Lawental, J. Katan (eds.), Social Work in Israel, Tel Aviv [Hebrew].
  38. Gilmore L., & Howard G. (2016), Children’s Books that Promote Understanding of Difference, Diversity and Disability, Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 26(2), pp. 218–251.
  39. Goffman E. (1963), Stigma: Notes on the Management a Spoiled Identity, New York.
  40. Greenberg J.R., & Mitchell S.A. (1983), Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory, New York.
  41. Halperin E., Elad-Stranger Y., & Andvolt K. (2016), Attitudes Towards People with Disabilities in 20 Selected Cities in Israel, Hertzelia [Hebrew].
  42. Hammond J., Keeney R., & Raiffa H. (2006), The Hidden Traps in Decision Making, Harvard Business Review, 84(1), pp. 118–126.
  43. Herrmann E., Call J., Hernández-Lloreda M.V., Hare B., & Tomasello M. (2007), Humans Have Evolved Specialized Skills of Social Cognition: The Cultural Intelligence Hypothesis, Science, 317(5843), pp. 1360–1366.
  44. Horne M.D. (1985), Attitudes Toward Handicapped Students: Professional, Peer, and Parent Reactions, Hillsdale, New Jersey.
  45. Ison N., McIntyre S., Rothery S., Smithers-Sheedy H., Goldsmith S., Parsonage S., & Foy L. (2010), ‘Just Like You’: A Disability Awareness Programme for Children That Enhanced Knowledge, Attitudes and Acceptance: Pilot Study Findings, Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13(5), pp. 360–368.
  46. Jones N., & Corrigan P.W. (2014), Understanding Stigma, [in:] P.W. Corrigan (ed.), The Stigma of Disease and Disability: Understanding Causes and Overcoming Injustices, Washington, DC, pp. 9–34.
  47. Kail R.V. (2014), Children and Their Development, Boston.
  48. Krahé B., & Altwasser C. (2006), Changing Negative Attitudes Towards Persons with Physical Disabilities: An Experimental Intervention, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16(1), pp. 59–69.
  49. Lee R. (2014), Intergenerational Transfers, Social Arrangements, Life Histories, and the Elderly, [in:] M. Weinstein, & M.A. Lane (eds.), Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography: A Collection of Papers, Washington, DC.
  50. Lee T., & Rodda M. (1994), Modification of Attitudes Toward People with Disabilities, Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 7(4), pp. 229–238.
  51. Lerner R., Brennan A.L., Noh R.E., & Wilson C. (2015), The Parenting of Adolescents and Adolescents as Parents: A Developmental Contextual Perspective, Parenthood in America, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  52. Leviton D. (1975), Education for Death, or Death Becomes Less a Stranger, OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying, 6(3), pp. 183–191.
  53. Linton S. (1998), Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity, New York.
  54. Livneh H. (1980), Disability and Monstrosity: Further Comments, Rehabilitation Literature, 41(11– 12), pp. 280–283.
  55. Livneh H. (1982), On the Origins of Negative Attitudes Towards People with Disabilities, Rehabilitation Literature, 43, pp. 338–347.
  56. Livneh H. (1983), Death Anxiety and Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons, Psychological Reports, 53(2), pp. 359–363.
  57. Livneh H. (2012), On the Origins of Negative Attitudes Towards People with Disabilities, The Psychological and Social Impact of Physical Disability, Supra Note, 70.
  58. Matthews T.L., Hempel L.M., & Howell F.M. (2010), Gender and the Transmission of Civic Engagement: Assessing the Influences on Youth Civic Activity, Sociological Inquiry, 80(3), pp. 448–474.
  59. Musick M.A., & Wilson J. (2008), Volunteers: A Social Profile, Bloomington, Indiana.
  60. Nesbit R. (2013), The Influence of Family and Household Members on Individual Volunteer Choices, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(6), pp. 1134–1154.
  61. O’Brien K.M., Larson C.M., & Murrell A.R. (2008), Third-Wave Behavior Therapies for Children and Adolescents: Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions, [in:] L.A. Greco, & S.C. Hayes (eds.), Acceptance & Mindfulness Treatments for Children & Adolescents: A Practitioner’s Guide, Oakland, CA.
  62. Oliver M. (1995), Understanding Disability: From Theory to Practice, Basingstoke, UK.
  63. Patterson G.R., DeBaryshe B.D., & Ramsey E. (1989), A Developmental Perspective on Antisocial Behavior, American Psychologist, 44(2), pp. 329–335.
  64. Penner L.A., Dovidio J.F., Piliavin J.A., & Schroeder D.A. (2005), Prosocial Behavior: Multilevel Perspectives, Annual Review in Psychology, 56, pp. 365–392.
  65. Pleck J.H. (2007), Why Could Father Involvement Benefit Children? Theoretical Perspectives, Applied Developmental Science, 11(4), pp. 196–202.
  66. Rabstejnek C.V. (2012), Family Systems & Murray Bowen Theory,, accessed: 01.12.2021.
  67. Reiter S., Kupferberg I., & Gilat I. (eds.) (2017), Contemporary Issues in the Inclusion of Children and Adults with Special Needs in Israel: A Collection of Papers, Tel Aviv [Hebrew].
  68. Reynolds L.T., & Herman-Kinney N.J. (2003), Handbook of Symbolic Interactionism, Walnut Creek, CA.
  69. Richardson S.A., Goodman N., Hastorf A.H., Dornbusch S.M. (1961), Cultural Uniformity in Reaction to Physical Disabilities, American Sociological Review, 26(2), pp. 241–247.
  70. Robinson C.C. (1996), Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections. Paper Presented in Symposium: New Measures of Parental Child-Rearing Practices Developed in Different Cultural Contexts, XI. Vth Biennial International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development Conference, Quebec City, Canada, August 12–16, 1996.
  71. Robinson C.C., Mandleco B., Olsen S.F., & Hart C.H. (1995), Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Development of a New Measure, Psychological Reports, 77, pp. 818–830.
  72. Roessler R., & Bolton B. (1978), Psychosocial Adjustment to Disability, University Park Press, Baltimore.
  73. Safilios-Rothschild C. (1970), The Sociology and Social Psychology of Disability and Rehabilitation, New York.
  74. Schilder P. (1935), The Image and Appearance of the Human Body, London.
  75. Scrimgeour M.B., Blandon A.Y., Stifter C.A., & Buss K.A. (2013), Cooperative Coparenting Moderates the Association between Parenting Practices and Children’s Prosocial Behavior, Journal of Family Psychology, 27(3), pp. 506–511.
  76. Sigerist F.G. (1964), The Gray Ladies of the American Red Cross, International Review of the Red Cross Archive, 4(36), pp. 121–133.
  77. Siller J. (1964), Reactions to Physical Disability by the Disabled and the Non-disabled, American Psychologist, Research Bulletin, 7, pp. 27–36.
  78. Siller J., Chapman A., Ferguson L., & Vann D.H. (1967), Studies in Reactions to Disability: XI. Attitudes of the Nondisabled toward the Physically Disabled, New York.
  79. Steadman H.J. (1976), Predicting Dangerousness, [in:] D.J. Madden, J.R. Lion (eds.), Rage. Hate. Assault. And Other Forms of Violence, New York.
  80. Steinberg R., & Wilhelm M. (2003), Giving: The Next Generation – Parental Effects on Donations (working paper), Brisbane, Australia.
  81. Stern D.N. (1995), The Motherhood Constellation, New York.
  82. Stipek D.J., Gralinski J.H., & Kopp C.B. (1990), Self-Concept Development in the Toddler Years, Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 972–977.
  83. Tal A. (2013), Stigma Among Employers towards People with Disabilities in General and Psychiatric Disabilities in Particular: Review and Discussion of Existing Legislation, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  84. Triandis H.C. (1971), Attitude and Attitude Change, Wiley Foundations of Social Psychology Series, New York.
  85. Whiteman M., & Lukoff I.F. (1965), Attitudes Toward Blindness and Other Physical Handicaps, Journal of Social Psychology, 66, pp. 135–145.
  86. Yamamoto K. (1970), Healthy Students in the College Environment, The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 48(10), pp. 809–816.
  87. Yarom N. (2007), Psychoanalysis in Our Mind – Thoughts on Contemporary Psychoanalytic Practice, Hebrew Psychology publisher [Hebrew].
  88. Ziv N., Moore S., & Eichengreen A. (2016), Introduction: Disability in Hebrew – An Academic Field in the Making, [in:] S. Moore, N. Ziv, A. Kanter, A. Eichengreen, & N. Mizrachi (eds.), Disability: A Reader, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  89. Zukin C., Keeter S., Andolina M., Jenkins K., & Delli-Carpini M.X. (2006), A New Engagement? Political Participation, Civic Life and the Changing American Citizen, Oxford, UK.