Głos Joanny. O paragone sztuk w "Męczeństwie Joanny d'Arc" Carla Theodora Dreyera

Słowa kluczowe

the theatrical and the cinematic
word and image
spiritual freedom
Carl Teodor Dreyer
Męczeństwo Joanny d'Arc

Jak cytować

Mrozewicz, A. (2009). Głos Joanny. O paragone sztuk w "Męczeństwie Joanny d’Arc" Carla Theodora Dreyera. Images. The International Journal of European Film, Performing Arts and Audiovisual Communication, 7(13-14), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2009.13.14.14


The voice of Joan. On paragone in Carl Th. Dreyer’s “The Passion of Joan of Arc”

The last mute film in Carl Th. Dreyer’s oeuvre, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), is often referred to as a film “made of close-ups” and purely cinematic. Dreyer used to stress himself that close-up was the specific cinematic device that asserted film’s position as autonomous art.  He especially insisted on film’s independence from theatre. Thus, it might sound quite surprising that in an interview from 1965, Dreyer draws attention to the underestimated, according to him, role of theatre in Joan of Arc. In my essay I focus on the theatricality in Dreyer’s film, arguing that “the theatrical” and “the cinematic” are two strategies used to present two different worlds of ideas and beliefs: that of the judges, clergymen and inquisitors, which at the same time is the world of males, and that of Joan, an illiterate woman who strives alone for her idea against a group of powerful men. What we observe in the film is a growing presence of ‘the cinematic’, the strategy allied with Joan, who in the final scene triumphs over the judges, just like cinema triumphs over theatricality.



D. Bordwell, The Films of Carl-Theodor Dreyer, Berkeley 1981, s. 66.

Carl Th. Dreyer, ed. by J. Jensen, essays by Ib Monty et al, New York 1988.

J. Schamus, Dreyer's textual realism, w: Carl Th. Dreyer, s. 59.

D. Bordwell, op. cit., s. 42—43; J. Schamus, Carl Theodor Dreyer's Gertrud: The Moving Word, Seattie 2008; Hammershol — Dreyer: The Magic of Images, ed. by A. RosenvoldHvidt, Charlottenlund 2006.

Dreyer in Double Reflection. Translation of Carl Th. Dreyer's Writings About the Film (Om Fil-men), edited and with accompanying commentary and essays by D. Skoller, E.P. Dutton & Co., New York 1973, s. 135.

T. Milne, The Cinema of Carl DreyNew York — London 1971, s. 98.

B. Fausing, Bevcegendebilleder: omaffektogbilleder, Kobenhavn 2000, s. 59.

J. Drum i D.D. Drum, My Only Great Passion. The Life and Films of Carl Th. Dreyer, London 2000, s. 127.

J.A.W. Heffernan, The Museum of Words. The Poetics of Ekphrasis from Homer to Ashbery, Chicago 1993, s. 6.

W.J.T. Mitchell, Ekphrasis and the Other, w: Picture Theory. Essays on verbal and visual representation, Chicago 1994, s. 151—181.